# 2.5. Stack and Queue

## 2.5.1. Questions

### 2.5.1.1. Longest Valid Parentheses

```
Given a string containing just the characters ‘(’ and ‘)’, find the length of the longest valid (well-formed) parentheses substring.
Example 1:
Input: “(()” Output: 2 Explanation: The longest valid parentheses substring is “()”
Example 2:
Input: “)()())” Output: 4 Explanation: The longest valid parentheses substring is “()()”
```

we can make use of stack while scanning the given string to check if the string scanned so far is valid, and also the length of the longest valid string. In order to do so, we start by pushing −1 onto the stack. For every ( encountered, we push its index onto the stack. For every ) encountered, we pop the topmost element and subtract the current element’s index from the top element of the stack, which gives the length of the currently encountered valid string of parentheses. If while popping the element, the stack becomes empty, we push the current element’s index onto the stack. In this way, we keep on calculating the lengths of the valid substrings, and return the length of the longest valid string at the end.

### 2.5.1.2. Basic Calculator with precedence

```
Implement a basic calculator to evaluate a simple expression string.
The expression string contains only non-negative integers, +, -, *, / operators and empty spaces . The integer division should truncate toward zero.
You may assume that the given expression is always valid.
Some examples:
"3+2*2" = 7
" 3/2 " = 1
" 3+5 / 2 " = 5
```

```
Implement a basic calculator to evaluate a simple expression string.
The expression string may contain open ( and closing parentheses ), the plus + or minus sign -, non-negative integers and empty spaces .
You may assume that the given expression is always valid.
Some examples:
"1 + 1" = 2
" 2-1 + 2 " = 3
"(1+(4+5+2)-3)+(6+8)" = 23
```

### 2.5.1.3. The Skyline Problem

```
A city’s skyline is the outer contour of the silhouette formed by all the buildings in that city when viewed from a distance. Now suppose you are given the locations and height of all the buildings as shown on a cityscape photo, write a program to output the skyline formed by these buildings collectively.
The geometric information of each building is represented by a triplet of integers [Li, Ri, Hi], where Li and Ri are the x coordinates of the left and right edge of the ith building, respectively, and Hi is its height. It is guaranteed that 0 ≤ Li, Ri ≤ INT_MAX, 0 < Hi ≤ INT_MAX, and Ri - Li > 0. You may assume all buildings are perfect rectangles grounded on an absolutely flat surface at height 0.
For instance, the dimensions of all buildings in Figure A are recorded as: [ [2 9 10], [3 7 15], [5 12 12], [15 20 10], [19 24 8] ] .
The output is a list of “key points” (red dots in Figure B) in the format of [ [x1,y1], [x2, y2], [x3, y3], … ] that uniquely defines a skyline. A key point is the left endpoint of a horizontal line segment. Note that the last key point, where the rightmost building ends, is merely used to mark the termination of the skyline, and always has zero height. Also, the ground in between any two adjacent buildings should be considered part of the skyline contour.
For instance, the skyline in Figure B should be represented as:[ [2 10], [3 15], [7 12], [12 0], [15 10], [20 8], [24, 0] ].
```

### 2.5.1.4. Remove duplicates and keep lexicographical order

```
Given a string which contains only lowercase letters, remove duplicate letters so that every letter appear once and only once. You must make sure your result is the smallest in lexicographical order among all possible results.
Example:
Given "bcabc"
Return "abc"
Given "cbacdcbc"
Return "acdb"
```

### 2.5.1.5. Exclusive Time of Functions

```
Given the running logs of n functions that are executed in a nonpreemptive single threaded CPU, find the exclusive time of these functions.
Each function has a unique id, start from 0 to n-1. A function may be called recursively or by another function.
A log is a string has this format : function_id:start_or_end:timestamp. For example, “0:start:0” means function 0 starts from the very beginning of time 0. “0:end:0” means function 0 ends to the very end of time 0.
Exclusive time of a function is defined as the time spent within this function, the time spent by calling other functions should not be considered as this function’s exclusive time. You should return the exclusive time of each function sorted by their function id.
Example:
Input: n = 2, logs = ["0:start:0", "1:start:2", "1:end:5", "0:end:6"]
Output:[3, 4]
Explanation:
Function 0 starts at time 0, then it executes 2 units of time and reaches the end of time 1.
Now function 0 calls function 1, function 1 starts at time 2, executes 4 units of time and end at time 5.
Function 0 is running again at time 6, and also end at the time 6, thus executes 1 unit of time.
So function 0 totally execute 2 + 1 = 3 units of time, and function 1 totally execute 4 units of time.
Note:
Input logs will be sorted by timestamp, NOT log id.
Your output should be sorted by function id, which means the 0th element of your output corresponds to the exclusive time of function 0.
Two functions won’t start or end at the same time.
Functions could be called recursively, and will always end.
1 <= n <= 100
```

### 2.5.1.6. Solve the Equation

```
Solve a given equation and return the value of x in the form of string “x=#value”. The equation contains only ‘+’, ‘-’ operation, the variable x and its coefficient.
If there is no solution for the equation, return “No solution”.
If there are infinite solutions for the equation, return “Infinite solutions”.
If there is exactly one solution for the equation, we ensure that the value of x is an integer.
Example 1:
Input: “x+5-3+x=6+x-2”
Output: “x=2”
Example 2:
Input: “x=x”
Output: “Infinite solutions”
Example 3:
Input: “2x=x”
Output: “x=0”
Example 4:
Input: “2x+3x-6x=x+2”
Output: “x=-1”
Example 5:
Input: “x=x+2”
Output: “No solution”
```

### 2.5.1.7. Largest Rectangle in Histogram

```
Given n non-negative integers representing the histogram’s bar height where the width of each bar is 1, find the area of largest rectangle in the histogram.
Above is a histogram where width of each bar is 1, given height = [2,1,5,6,2,3].
The largest rectangle is shown in the shaded area, which has area = 10 unit.
For example, given heights = [2,1,5,6,2,3], return 10.
```

https://leetcode.com/problems/largest-rectangle-in-histogram/ http://jefflai.org/2017/06/13/84-Largest-Rectangle-in-Histogram/ http://blog.csdn.net/u013027996/article/details/43198421